While extracting starch from raw materials through process operations such as Corn Wet-Milling, Dry Milling, Wheat Flour Processing, some other products are also produced, which are called as PFLs (Proteins, Fibers and Lipids). These products contain proteins, vitamins and minerals and therefore they are of particular interest as both nutritional and functional additions for animal feed in Beef, Swine, Aquaculture, Dairy, Poultry businesses and also for human consumption. Information for some of the most known PFL products are given below.
Corn Steep Liquor (also known as condensed fermented corn extractives) is a high-energy liquid feed ingredient. The protein value analyzes at 25% on a 50% solids basis. This product is sometimes combined with the corn gluten feed or may be sold separately as a liquid protein source for beef or dairy feeding. It also can be used as a pellet binder and is a source of B-vitamins and minerals.
Corn Germ Meal typically analyzes at 20% protein, 2% fat, and 9.5% fiber. It has an amino acid balance that makes it valuable in poultry and swine rations. It is also used as a carrier of liquid feed nutrients.
Corn oil is oil extracted from the germ of corn (maize). Its main use is in cooking, where its high smoke point makes refined corn oil valuable frying oil. It is also a key ingredient in some margarines. Corn oil is also a feedstock used for biodiesel. Other industrial uses for corn oil include soap, salve, paint, rustproofing for metal surfaces, inks, textiles, nitroglycerin, and insecticides. It is sometimes used as a carrier for drug molecules in pharmaceutical preparations.
Corn Gluten Feed (Fiber) is a medium protein ingredient composed of the bran and fibrous portions. It may or may not be pelletized and may or may not contain corn steep liquor and /or corn germ meal. This product is also sold as wet or dry. It analyzes typically as 21% protein, 2.5% fat, and 8% fiber. Wet corn gluten feed (45% dry matter) is similarly combined but not dried. It is a perishable product in 6 –10 days and must be fed or stored in an anaerobic environment. These feeds are widely used in complete feeds for dairy and beef cattle, poultry, swine and pet foods.
Corn Gluten Meal (Gluten) is a high protein concentrate typically supplied at a 66% protein, 3% fat and 1% fiber. It is a valuable source of methionine. Corn gluten meal also has a level of xanthophyll, which offers the poultry feed formulators an efficient yellow pigmenting ingredient. Corn gluten meal also is an excellent cattle feed providing a high level of rumen bypass protein.
Vital Wheat Gluten is a protein derived from wheat flour. Vital wheat gluten provides consistency in flour, improved dough machinability and extended shelf life for finished products. It is most commonly used in pastas and bread.